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    涂層刀具材料有什么特點?

    來源:http://www.wuyinlpjm.cn/ 日期:2021-09-23 發布人:hengxin

    對刀具進行涂層處理是提高刀具性能的重要途徑之一。涂層刀具的出現,使刀具切削性能有了重大突破。涂層刀具是在韌性較好刀體上,涂覆一層或多層耐磨性好的難熔化合物,它將刀具基體與硬質涂層相結合,從而使刀具性能大大提高。涂層刀具可以提高加工效率、提高加工精度、延長刀具使用壽命、降低加工成本。

    The coating treatment of cutting tools is one of the important ways to improve the performance of cutting tools. The emergence of coated cutting tools has made a major breakthrough in cutting performance. Coated tool is coated with one or more layers of refractory compound with good wear resistance on the tool body with good toughness. It combines the tool matrix with hard coating, so as to greatly improve the tool performance. Coated tools can improve machining efficiency, improve machining accuracy, prolong tool life and reduce machining cost.
    新型數控機床所用切削刀具中有80%左右使用涂層刀具。涂層刀具將是今后數控加工領域中更重要的刀具品種。
    About 80% of the cutting tools used in new CNC machine tools use coated tools. Coated tool will be the most important tool in the field of NC machining in the future.
    ⑴ 涂層刀具的種類
    (1) types of coated tools
    根據涂層方法不同,涂層刀具可分為化學氣相沉積(CVD)涂層刀具和物理氣相沉積(PVD)涂層刀具。涂層硬質合金刀具一般采用化學氣相沉積法,沉積溫度在1000℃左右。涂層高速鋼刀具一般采用物理氣相沉積法,沉積溫度在500℃左右;
    According to different coating methods, coated tools can be divided into chemical vapor deposition (CVD) coated tools and physical vapor deposition (PVD) coated tools. Coated cemented carbide cutting tools generally adopt chemical vapor deposition method, and the deposition temperature is about 1000 ℃. Coated HSS Cutting Tools generally adopt physical vapor deposition method, and the deposition temperature is about 500 ℃;
    根據涂層刀具基體材料的不同,涂層刀具可分為硬質合金涂層刀具、高速鋼涂層刀具、以及在陶瓷和超硬材料(金剛石和立方氮化硼)上的涂層刀具等。
    According to the different base materials of coated tools, coated tools can be divided into cemented carbide coated tools, high-speed steel coated tools, and coated tools on ceramics and superhard materials (diamond and cubic boron nitride).
    根據涂層材料的性質,涂層刀具又可分為兩大類,即“硬”涂層刀具和 ‘軟”涂層刀具。“硬”涂層刀具追求的主要目標是高的硬度和耐磨性,其主要優點是硬度高、耐磨性能好,典型的是TiC和TiN涂層。“軟”涂層刀具追求的目標是低摩擦系數,也稱為自潤滑刀具,它與工件材料的摩擦系數很低,只有0.1左右,可減小粘接,減輕摩擦,降低切削力和切削溫度。
    According to the properties of coating materials, coated tools can be divided into two categories, namely "hard" coated tools and "soft" coated tools. The main goal of "hard" coated tools is high hardness and wear resistance. Its main advantages are high hardness and good wear resistance. The typical coatings are tic and tin coatings. The goal of "soft" coating tool is to pursue low friction coefficient, also known as self-lubricating tool. Its friction coefficient with workpiece material is very low, only about 0.1, which can reduce bonding, reduce friction, reduce cutting force and cutting temperature.
    數控刀片回收
    更近開發了納米涂層 (Nanoeoating)刀具。這種涂層刀具可采用多種涂層材料的不同組合 (如金屬/金屬、金屬/陶瓷、陶瓷/陶瓷等),以滿足不同的功能和性能要求。設計合理的納米涂層可使刀具材料具有優異的減摩抗磨功能和自潤滑性能,適合于高速干切削。
    Recently, nano coating tools have been developed. The coated tool can adopt different combinations of various coating materials (such as metal / metal, metal / ceramic, ceramic / ceramic, etc.) to meet different functional and performance requirements. The nano coating with reasonable design can make the tool material have excellent antifriction and anti-wear function and self-lubricating performance, which is suitable for high-speed dry cutting.
    ⑵ 涂層刀具的特點
    (2) characteristics of coated tools
    ① 力學和切削性能好:涂層刀具將基體材料和涂層材料的優良性能結合起來,既保持了基體良好的韌性和較高的強度,又具有涂層的高硬度、高耐磨性和低摩擦系數。因此,涂層刀具的切削速度比未涂層刀具可提高2倍以上,并允許有較高的進給量。涂層刀具的壽命也得到提高。
    ① Good mechanical and cutting properties: the coated tool combines the excellent properties of the matrix material and the coating material, which not only maintains the good toughness and high strength of the matrix, but also has the high hardness, high wear resistance and low friction coefficient of the coating. Therefore, the cutting speed of coated tools can be more than 2 times higher than that of uncoated tools, and a higher feed rate is allowed. The life of coated tools is also improved.
    ② 通用性強:涂層刀具通用性廣,加工范圍顯著擴大,一種涂層刀具可以代替數種非涂層刀具使用。
    ② Strong versatility: coated tools have wide versatility and significantly expand the processing range. One coated tool can replace several uncoated tools.
    ③ 涂層厚度:隨涂層厚度的增加刀具壽命也會增加,但當涂層厚度達到飽和,刀具壽命不再明顯增加。涂層太厚時,易引起剝離;涂層太薄時,則耐磨性能差。
    ③ Coating thickness: with the increase of coating thickness, the tool life will also increase, but when the coating thickness reaches saturation, the tool life will no longer increase significantly. When the coating is too thick, it is easy to cause peeling; When the coating is too thin, the wear resistance is poor.
    ④ 重磨性:涂層刀片重磨性差、涂層設備復雜、工藝要求高、涂層時間長。
    ④ Regrinding property: the coating blade has poor regrinding property, complex coating equipment, high process requirements and long coating time.
    ⑤ 涂層材料:不同涂層材料的刀具,切削性能不一樣。如:低速切削時,TiC涂層占有優勢;高速切削時,TiN 較合適。
    ⑤ Coating material: the cutting performance of tools with different coating materials is different. For example, when cutting at low speed, TiC coating has advantages; Tin is more suitable for high-speed cutting.

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